Journal List > J Korean Ophthalmol Soc > v.57(2) > 1010507

J Korean Ophthalmol Soc. 2016 Feb;57(2):276-282. Korean.
Published online February 16, 2016.
©2016 The Korean Ophthalmological Society
Association between Grapes Intake and Diabetic Retinopathy: Inhibitory Effect of Resveratol on Diabetic Retinopathy
Bo Young Lee, MD, Donghyun Jee, MD, PhD, and Epidemiology Survey Committee of the Korean Ophthalmology Society
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

Address reprint requests to Donghyun Jee, MD, PhD. Department of Ophthalmology, The Catholic University of Korea St. Vincent's Hospital, #93 Jungbu-daero, Paldal-gu, Suwon 16247, Korea. Tel: 82-31-249-7343, Fax: 82-31-249-6225, Email:
Received November 26, 2015; Revised December 16, 2015; Accepted January 19, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



To evaluate the association between grape intake and diabetic retinopathy.


A population-based cross-sectional study using a nation-wide, stratified, multistage, clustered sampling method included 1,555 subjects aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2008-2011. All participants performed standardized interviews, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Grape intake was evaluated by an FFQ using 10 intervals of average frequency of grape intake during the past year. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was evaluated by 7 standard retinal fundus photographs after pharmacological pupil dilatation. DR was classified as any DR, proliferative DR, or vision-threatening DR by the modified Air House classification system.


The prevalence of diabetes was 16.9 ± 1.2%. As the grape intake frequency increases in FFQ, the odds ratio (OR) for any DR, proliferative DR, and vision-threatening DR were 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.98), 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.88), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.60-0.99) respectively. Compared to the group with a grape intake of less than once per month, the OR for any DR, proliferative DR, and vision-threatening DR in the group with a grape intake of more than 2-3 times per month were 0.54 (95% CI 0.33-0.89), 0.25 (95% CI 0.07-0.81), 0.36 (95% CI 0.13-0.95), respectively.


The intake of grapes was inversely associated with the prevalence of DR.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Grape; Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey; Resveratrol


Figure 1
Flow diagram presenting the selection of study participants. KNHANES = Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.
Click for larger image


Table 1
Demographic and clinical characteristics, according to DR status, as reported in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011
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Table 2
Prevalence of DR according to the frequency of grape intake in a representative Korean population
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Table 3
Multiple logistic regression analysis between intake of grapes (continuous variable) and any DR, PDR, and VTDR in a representative Korean population
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Table 4
Multiple logistic regression analysis between the quartile intake of grapes and any DR, PDR, and VTDR in a representative Korean population
Click for larger image


The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the St.Vincent's Hospital, Research Institute of Medical Science (SVHR-2012-12).

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