Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.45(2) > 1003060

Kim and Park: A Validation Study of the Modified Korean Version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire (K-ELW)



The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Ethical Leadership at Work questionnaire (K-ELW) that measures RNs' perceived ethical leadership of their nurse managers.


The strong validation process suggested by Benson (1998), including translation and cultural adaptation stage, structural stage, and external stage, was used. Participants were 241 RNs who reported their perceived ethical leadership using both the pre-version of K-ELW and a previously known Ethical Leadership Scale, and interactional justice of their managers, as well as their own demographics, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, reliability coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. SPSS 19.0 and Amos 18.0 versions were used.


A modified K-ELW was developed from construct validity evidence and included 31 items in 7 domains: People orientation, task responsibility fairness, relationship fairness, power sharing, concern for sustainability, ethical guidance, and integrity. Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were supported according to the correlation coefficients of the 7 domains with other measures.


The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that the modified K-ELW can be adopted in Korean nursing organizations, and reliable and valid ethical leadership scores can be expected.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Validation Process of the Korean version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire (K-ELW)

Table 2

Measures and Variables Used to Validate the K-ELW

Table 3

K-ELW's Original Questionnaire Items and Modified K-ELW's Factor Analysis Findings


K-ELW=Korean version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire; EFA=Exploratory Factor Analysis; CFA=Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

Table 4

Model Fit Indices of K-ELW


K-ELW=Korean version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire; RMSEA=Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; SRMR=Standardized Root Mean Square Residual; GFI=Goodness of Fit Index; AGFI=Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index; NFI=Normal Fit Index; CFI=Comparative Fit Index; TLI=Turkey-Lewis Index.

Table 5

Modified K-ELW's Internal Consistency and Pearson Correlation Coefficients with External Variables (N=241)


*p<.05; p<.01; p<.001; K-ELW=Korean version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire; K-ELS=Korean version of Ethical Leadership Scale.


*This manuscript is a revision of the first author's master's thesis from Konkuk University.


Appendix 1



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