Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.45(1) > 1003049

Cho, Choi, Lee, and Cho: Relationship between Expectations Regarding Aging and Physical Activity among Middle Aged Adults in Urban Areas: Based on the Pender's Health Promotion Model



The purpose of this study was to measure the level of expectations regarding aging (ERA) and identify relationship between ERA and physical activity of middle aged adults.


Participants were middle aged adults who resided in the community in three cities in Korea. Data were collected using questionnaires that contained items on individual characteristic, International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ), and behavior-specific cognitive factors including ERA-12. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine whether ERA would predict physical activity by controlling other factors.


The mean age of the participants was 51.1±6.9 years. The mean score for ERA (possible range=0 to 100) was 40.04±14.31. More than half of the participants (62.6%) were not engaged in health promoting physical activity. Gender, employment status and exercise confidence were associated with level of physical activity (F=7.14, p<.001, R2=.36). After controlling for individual factors and behavior-specific cognitive factors, ERA was independently related to physical activity (F=7.19, p<.001, R2=.38).


The results demonstrate that individuals' belief about aging has effects on physical activity in Korean middle aged adults. Thus, nursing interventions which focused on ERA could help enhance physical activity in middle aged adults.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1

Conceptual framework.

Table 1

Relationship between Individual Characteristics and Physical Activity (N=163)


*Scheffé test result; MET level x minutes of activity x events per week; MET level: Vigorous intensity (8), Moderate intensity (4), Walking (3.3).

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics for Measured Variables (N=163)


PA=Physical activity.

Table 3

Correlation Matrix among Measured Variables (N=163)


*p<.05; p<.01; PA=Physical activity.

Table 4

Hierarchical Multiple Regression of Expectation Regarding Aging on Physical Activity (N=163)


*Dummy variables; β=Standardized beta; PA=Physical activity.


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