Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.44(6) > 1003035

Bae and Cho: Effects of Community-based Comprehensive Fall Prevention Program on Muscle Strength, Postural Balance and Fall Efficacy in Elderly People



The purposes of this study was to develop a comprehensive community-based fall prevention program and to test the effects of the program on the muscle strength, postural balance and fall efficacy for elderly people.


The design of this study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. There were 28 participants in the experimental group and 29 in the control group. The program consisted of balance exercises, elastic resistance exercises and prevention education. The program was provided five times a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 90 minutes. Data were analyzed using χ2-test, independent t-test and paired t-test using the SPSS program.


Muscle strength of the lower extremities, postural balance and fall efficacy scores significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the control group.


These results suggest that this program can improve lower extremity muscle strength, postural balance and fall efficacy in elders. Therefore, this program is recommended for use in fall prevention programs for elders living in the community.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Effects of exercise on muscle power, postural balance and fall efficacy between the experiment and control groups.
Table 1
Contents of the Fall Prevention Program

Table 2
Homogeneity of General Characteristics and Dependent Variables (N=57)

Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group.

Table 3
Differences in Muscle Power, Postural Balance and Fall Efficacy between the Experimental and Control Groups

p≤ .05; Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group.


This work was supported by the 2013 Inje University research grant.


1. World Health Organization. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. Geneva, CH: Author;2007.
2. Haber D. Health promotion and aging: Practical applications for health professionals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company;2003.
3. Akyol AD. Falls in the elderly: What can be done? Int Nurs Rev. 2007; 54(2):191–196.
4. Jeong KH, Oh YH, Lee YK, Son CG, Park BM, Lee SY, et al. A survey of the elderly, 2011. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare, The Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs;2012.
5. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Falls and their prevention in elderly people: What does the evidence show? Med Clin North Am. 2006; 90(5):807–824.
6. Jung YM, Lee SE, Chung KS. Prevalence and associated factors of falls according to health status in elderly living in the community. J Korean Gerontol Soc. 2006; 26(2):291–303.
7. Jeoung BJ. A review of exercise program for fall prevention in the elderly. J Korean Soc Aerobic Exerc. 2008; 12(1):1–9.
8. Choe MA, Jeon MY, Choi JA. Effect of walk training on physical fitness for prevention in a home bound elderly. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2000; 30(5):1318–1332.
9. Liu MR, So H. Effects of Tai Chi exercise program on physical fitness, fall related perception and health status in institutionalized elders. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2008; 38(4):620–628.
10. Jeon MY, Bark ES, Lee EG, Im JS, Jeong BS, Choe ES. The effects of a Korean traditional dance movement program in elderly women. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2005; 35(7):1268–1276.
11. Gu MO, Jeon MY, Eun Y. The development and effect of a tailored falls prevention exercise for older adults. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2006; 36(2):341–352.
12. Kwon MS. Effects of a fall prevention program on physical fitness and psychological functions in community dwelling elders. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2011; 41(2):165–174.
13. Yoo JS, Jeon MY, Kim CG. Effects of a fall prevention program on falls in frail elders living at home in rural communities. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2013; 43(5):613–625.
14. Shin KR, Shin SJ, Kim JS, Kim JY. The effects of fall prevention program on knowledge, self-efficacy, and preventive activity related to fall, and depression of low-income elderly women. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2005; 35(1):104–112.
15. Moreland JD, Richardson JA, Goldsmith CH, Clase CM. Muscle weakness and falls in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(7):1121–1129.
16. Zion AS, De Meersman R, Diamond BE, Bloomfield DM. A home-based resistance-training program using elastic bands for elderly patients with orthostatic hypotension. Clin Auton Res. 2003; 13(4):286–292.
17. Barnett A, Smith B, Lord SR, Williams M, Baumand A. Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: A randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing. 2003; 32(4):407–414.
18. Miller KL, Magel JR, Hayes JG. The effects of a home-based exercise program on balance confidence, balance performance, and gait in debilitated, ambulatory community-dwelling older adults: A pilot study. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2010; 33(2):85–91.
19. Jones GR, Frederick JAB. The Canadian centre for activity and aging's home support exercise program. Geriatr Aging. 2003; 6(7):48–49.
20. Yoo IY. Effects of fall prevention program applying HSEP on physical balance and gait, leg strength, fear of falling and falls efficacy of community-dwelling elderly. J Korean Gerontol Soc. 2009; 29(1):259–273.
21. Gu MO, Jeon MY, Kim HJ, Eun Y. A review of exercise interventions for fall prevention in the elderly. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2005; 35(6):1101–1112.
22. Brilla LR, Stephens AB, Knutzen KM, Caine D. Effect of strength training on orthostatic hypotension in older adults. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1998; 18(4):295–300.
23. Tinetti ME, Richman D, Powell L. Falls efficacy as a measure of fear of falling. J Gerontol. 1990; 45(6):P239–P243.
24. Jang SN, Cho SI, Ou SW, Lee ES, Baik HW. The validity and reliability of Korean fall efficacy scale (FES) and activities-specific balance confidence scale (ABC). J Korean Geriatr Soc. 2003; 7(4):255–268.
25. Kwon YC, Park JH. Korean version of mini-mental state examination (MMSE-K) Part I: Development of the test for the elderly. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc. 1998; 28(1):125–135.
26. Page P, Ellenbecker TS. The scientific and clinical application of elastic resistance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics;2003.
27. Choi JH. The effects of Tai Chi exercise on physiologic, psychological functions and fall in fall prone elderly [dissertation]. Seoul: The Catholic University of Korea;2002.
28. Mikesky AE, Topp R, Wigglesworth JK, Harsha DM, Edwards JE. Efficacy of a home-based training program for older adults using elastic tubing. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994; 69(4):316–320.
29. Park HS, Chang R, Park KY. Comparative study on fall related characteristics between single and recurrent falls in community-dwelling older women. J Korean Acad Adult Nurs. 2008; 20(6):905–916.
30. Hill-Westmoreland EE, Soeken K, Spellbring AM. A meta-analysis of fall prevention programs for the elderly: How effective are they? Nurs Res. 2002; 51(1):1–8.
Similar articles