Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.39(1) > 1002509

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2009 Feb;39(1):107-115. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2009.  https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2009.39.1.107
Copyright © 2009 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Effects of an Exercise Program on Frontal Lobe Cognitive Function in Elders
Mee-Kyung Shin
Full-time Instructor, Department of Nursing Science, Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Shin, Mee-Kyung. Department of Nursing Science, Korea Nazarene University, 456 Ssangyong-dong, Cheonan 331-718, Korea. Tel: 82-41-570-7070, Fax: 82-41-570-4260, Email: splash92@paran.com
Received August 05, 2008; Accepted January 21, 2009.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an exercise program on frontal lobe cognitive function in seniors.

Methods

The participants were 42 seniors using a health center in Seoul (experimental group) and 28 seniors using a facility for elders in Seoul (control group). The exercise program was carried out for 16 weeks from April to August 2007. The frontal lobe cognitive function, which includes short term memory, attention, immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency and motor function, was measured by the Digit Span Forward test, Trail Making test, Immediate recall words test, Delayed recall words, Controlled oral word association test and Finger tapping test. The collected data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, t-test, and ANCOVA using the SAS program.

Results

The major findings of this study were as follows: Attention (p=.009), immediate memory (p=.005), delayed memory (p=.009), and verbal fluency (p=.004) improved after the exercise program.

Conclusion

In this study, the exercise program was effective in improving frontal lobe cognitive function in elders. So it provides basic information for further nursing education on exercise programs which will be effective for prevention of early cognitive function decline in normally aging elders.

Keywords: Exercise program; Frontal lobe cognitive function; Aged

Tables


Table 2
Exercise Program
Click for larger image


Table 3
Homogeneity of General Characteristics and Medical History of Two Groups (N=70)
Click for larger image


Table 4
Homogeneity of Dependent Variables (N=70)
Click for larger image


Table 5
Comparison of the Frontal Lobe Cognitive Function of Two Groups (N=70)
Click for larger image

References
1. Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, Schniebolk S, Walsh-Riddle M, George LK, et al. Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women. Journal of Gerontology 1991;46:352–361.
2. Borg GA. Psycholophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1982;14:377–381.
3. Cheon JS. Neurocognitive assessment of geriatric patients. Journal of Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatric 2000;6:126–139.
4. Choe HG, Kim YS, Park HW, Lee JL, Oh SA, Park IS. The effect of tailored exercise of teenagers' obesity change; Paper presented at the spring meeting of the Korean Academy of Obesity; Seoul: 2003.
5. Choi KU. In: The effect of regular exercise on cognitive function, stress, depression and antioxidants in elderly women. Seoul: Korea University; 2004.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
6. Cohen J. In: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral science. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association Publishing; 1988.
7. Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science 2003;14:125–130.
8. Fuster JM. In: The prefontal cortex. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Raven Press Publishing; 1989.
9. Hall CD, Smith AL, Keele SW. The impact of aerobic activity on cognitive function in older adults: A new synthesis based on the concept of executive control. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 2001;13:279–300.
10. Hogan BA. Physical and cognitive activity and exercise for older adults: Review. Journal of Aging and Human Development 2005;60:95–126.
11. Kang YW. Cognitive changes in the frontal lobe across the life span; Paper presented at the meeting of the Korean Psychological Association; Seoul: 2006.
12. Kim HJ, Choi JM, Lee KM. Effects of combination training of resistance and walking exercise on the psychomotor performance in the elderly. Journal of Physical Growth and Motor Development 2004;12:97–105.
13. Kim HS, Park UY. In: Senior Fitness Test. Seoul: Daehan Media Publishing; 2005.
14. Kim JS, Jeong IS, Kim YJ, Hwang SK, Choi BC. Screening for high risk population of dementia and development of the preventive program using web. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 2003;33:236–245.
15. Kim JS, Jung JS. The effect of a folk play program on cognition, ADL, and problematic behavior in the elderly with dementia. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 2005;35:1153–1162.
16. Kim KU, Kim SY, Kim JH, Uh SI, Uh JI, Yoon JC, et al. In: Korean version of the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease assessment packet. Seoul: Seoul National University Publishing; 2003.
17. Kim YS. The effect of cognitive ability and self esteem on regular exercise in the elderly. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 2001;40:181–193.
18. Society Statistical Survey. Korean National Statistic Office. 2003 Sep 21.
19. Statistics for the elderly. Korean National Statistic Office. 2008 Oct 01.
20. Korean NeuroPsychiatric Assocation. Dementia. Seoul: Chosunilbosa Publishing; 2002.
21. Kramer AF, Hahn S, Cohen NJ, Banich MT, McAuley E, Harrison CR, et al. Aging, fitness and neurocognitive function. Nature 1999;400:418–419.
22. Laurin D, Verreault R, Lindsay J, MacPherson K, Rockwood K. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons. Archives of Neurology 2001;58:498–504.
23. Lee KM, Choi JM, Kim HJ. The effect of regular exercise training on cognitive function in the elderly women. Journal of Physical Growth and Motor Development 2002;10:81–90.
24. Lipowski ZJ. Delirium updated. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1980;21:190–196.
25. Lytle ME, Vander Bilt J, Pandav RS, Dodge HH, Ganguli M. Exercise level and cognitive decline: The Movies project. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders 2004;18:57–64.
26. Park TJ. Cognitive neural mechanism of aging. The Korean Journal of Experimental Psychology 2004;16:317–336.
27. Rikli RE, Jones CJ. In: Senior fitness manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishing; 2001.
28. Roth CL. How to protect the aging work force. Occupational Hazards 2005;67:52–54.
29. Ryu HS. A study on ADL and dementia of aged person with medicaid in Korea. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 2001;31:236–245.
30. Seo HG. Elderly with dementia in the year 2007 is estimated about 400 thousand. 2007 Sep 20 [Retrieved September 20, 2007].
31. Van Gelder BM, Tijhuis MA, Kalmijn S, Giampaoli S, Nissinen A, Kromhout D. Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: The FINE study. Neurology 2004;63:2316–2321.