Journal List > J Korean Acad Oral Health > v.38(3) > 1057606

Jin, Bae, Kim, Park, Jeong, Kim, Jeong, Im, and Choi: Validity and reliability of a questionnaire for evaluating periodontal disease



The purpose of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire survey to determine its validity and reliability as well as to improve the instructions for measurement of periodontal disease during oral examination for reliably calculating the prevalence of periodontal disease.


The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and the WINSTEPS program that employs the Rasch model to evaluate validity and reliability of the instrument.


We developed a self-administered questionnaire survey consisting of 14 questions based on NHANES. We confirmed the reliability by testing and re-testing the questionnaire survey using self-administered methods. The average Kappa index obtained was 0.73, which indicated a relatively high reliability.


Reliability and validity of the self-administered assessment tool for periodontal disease developed for the local situation/circumstances of Korea is suitable to be applied for oral examination of a large population. Moreover, the questionnaire survey for periodontal disease could be used to acquire data for constructing a database for oral health policy development.


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Table 1.
Demographic characteristics of respondents
Variable N (%) Variable N (%)
Gender Male 157 (49.2) Education (yrs) ≤12 171 (53.6)
Female 162 (50.8) >12 148 (46.4)
Age (yrs) 20-29 58 (18.2) Marital status Married 244 (76.5)
30-39 65 (20.4) Unmarried 67 (21.0)
40-49 65 (20.4) Et al 8 (2.5)
50-59 63 (19.7) Income states ≤2,000 49 (15.4)
≥60 68 (21.3) 2,000≤ ≤4,000 147 (46.1)
Region Seoul 70 (21.9) <4,001 123 (38.6)
Gyeonggi / Incheon 97 (30.4) Occupation Self-employed 64 (20.1)
Daejeon / Chungcheong / Sejong 31 (9.7) Blue collar 77 (24.1)
Daegu / Gyeongbuk 29 (9.1) White collar 70 (21.9)
Gwangju / Jeolla 32 (10.0) Housewives 72 (22.6)
Basun / Ulsan / Gyeongnam 50 (15.7) Student 16 (5.0)
Gangwon 10 (3.1) Jobless 20 (6.3)
Table 2.
Results of factor analysis periodontal health-related items inthe questionnaire
Factor loading*
Self-perceived oral disease 0.835
Painful gums when chewing solid food 0.745
Self-perceived periodontal disease 0.745
Self-reported mobility 0.741
bleeding gums when brushing 0.552 0.438
Current smoker 0.948
The amount of cigarettes in life 0.948
The amount of alcohol consumptionlast for 1 year 0.675
Use of dental rinse 0.708
Use of floss 0.661
Use of interdental brush 0.646 0.402
Scaling (teeth cleaning) experience 0 646 0 4020.794
Periodontal (gum) surgery experience 0.459 0.469
Eigen value 2.209 2.288 1.521 1.412
Cumulative explanatory power (%) 22.38 39.98 51.68 62.54

*0.3≥factor loading.

Table 3.
Exploratory factor analysis of 50% stratified random sampling(N=160)
Factor loading*
Self-perceived oral disease 0.835
Painful gums when chewing solid food 0.801
Self-perceived periodontal disease 0.752
Self-reported mobility 0.723 0.340
Bleeding gums when brushing 0.587 0.386
Periodontal (gum) surgery experience 0.533 0.381
Current smoker 0.950
The amount of cigarettes in life 0.943
The amount of alcohol consumption 0.636
last for 1 yearUse of interdental brush 0.769
Use of dental rinse 0.704
Use of dental floss 0.700
Scaling (teeth cleaning) experience 0.813
Eigen value 3.091 2.260 1.686 1.265
Cumulative explanatory power (%) 23.78 41.16 54.13 63.87
Table 4.
Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire
1. Do you think that you have gum diseases? 0.667
2. When you think about your oral heath, what do you think about your oral condition such as teeth and gums? 0.331
3. Have you ever experienced any treatment for gum disease, such as the teeth cleaning in the clinic? 0.750
4. Have you ever had periodontal treatment or surgery with anesthesia (including deep cleaning)? 0.734
5. Have you ever had any teeth become loose on their own, without an injury? 0.808
6. Have you ever been told by a dental professional that you lost bone around your teeth? 0.746
7. Have you ever had bleeding around the gums when you brush your teeth? 0.786
8. Have you ever had painful gums when you chew solid food (carrots or peanuts)? 0.781
9. Do you use dental floss to clean between your teeth? 0.718
10. Do you use interdental brush to clean between your teeth? 0.651
11. Do you use dental rinse products to clean your mouth (gargle, listerine)? 0.792
12. How much have you smoked in your life? 0.918
13. Are you a current smoker? 1.000
14. How often have you drank alcohol in the last year? 0.558
Average 0.731
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