Journal List > J Korean Thyroid Assoc > v.6(1) > 1056527

J Korean Thyroid Assoc. 2013 May;6(1):1-11. Korean.
Published online May 31, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.11106/jkta.2013.6.1.1
Copyright © 2013. the Korean Thyroid Association. All rights reserved.
The Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism Consensus - Report of the Korean Thyroid Association
Ka Hee Yi,1 Jae Hoon Moon,2 In-Ju Kim,3 Hee-Seung Bom,4 Jaetae Lee,5 Woong Youn Chung,6 Jae Hoon Chung,7 and Young Kee Shong8
1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea.
5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
6Department of Surgery, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
7Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
8Department of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Correspondence: Ka Hee Yi, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, 20 Boramae-ro 5-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-707, Korea. Tel: 82-2-870-3864, Fax: 82-2-870-3866, Email: khyi@snu.ac.kr

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


References
1. Cho BY. In: Clinical thyroidology. 3rd ed. Seoul, Korea: Korea Medical Book Publisher; 2010.
2. Gozu HI, Lublinghoff J, Bircan R, Paschke R. Genetics and phenomics of inherited and sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010;322(1-2):125–134.
3. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee MC, Klein I, et al. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid 2011;21(6):593–646.
4. Cho BY, Koh CS. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of Graves' disease in Korea. J Korean Soc Endocrinol 1992;7(3):216–227.
5. Wartofsky L, Glinoer D, Solomon B, Nagataki S, Lagasse R, Nagayama Y, et al. Differences and similarities in the diagnosis and treatment of Graves' disease in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Thyroid 1991;1(2):129–135.
6. Boelaert K, Torlinska B, Holder RL, Franklyn JA. Older subjects with hyperthyroidism present with a paucity of symptoms and signs: a large cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(6):2715–2726.
7. Klein I, Danzi S. Thyroid disease and the heart. Circulation 2007;116(15):1725–1735.
8. European Heart Rhythm Association; Heart Rhythm Society. Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation--executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation). J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48(4):854–906.
9. Socin HV, Chanson P, Delemer B, Tabarin A, Rohmer V, Mockel J, et al. The changing spectrum of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: diagnosis and management in 43 patients. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148(4):433–442.
10. Brucker-Davis F, Skarulis MC, Grace MB, Benichou J, Hauser P, Wiggs E, et al. Genetic and clinical features of 42 kindreds with resistance to thyroid hormone. The National Institutes of Health Prospective Study. Ann Intern Med 1995;123(8):572–583.
11. Shigemasa C, Abe K, Taniguchi S, Mitani Y, Ueda Y, Adachi T, et al. Lower serum free thyroxine (T4) levels in painless thyroiditis compared with Graves' disease despite similar serum total T4 levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65(2):359–363.
12. Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Laurberg P. TSH-receptor antibody measurement for differentiation of hyperthyroidism into Graves' disease and multinodular toxic goitre: a comparison of two competitive binding assays. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001;55(3):381–390.
13. Bogazzi F, Vitti P. Could improved ultrasound and power Doppler replace thyroidal radioiodine uptake to assess thyroid disease? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2008;4(2):70–71.
14. Trzepacz PT, Klein I, Roberts M, Greenhouse J, Levey GS. Graves' disease: an analysis of thyroid hormone levels and hyperthyroid signs and symptoms. Am J Med 1989;87(5):558–561.
15. Klein I, Becker DV, Levey GS. Treatment of hyperthyroid disease. Ann Intern Med 1994;121(4):281–288.
16. Abraham-Nordling M, Torring O, Hamberger B, Lundell G, Tallstedt L, Calissendorff J, et al. Graves' disease: a long-term quality-of-life follow up of patients randomized to treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine, or surgery. Thyroid 2005;15(11):1279–1286.
17. Kuy S, Roman SA, Desai R, Sosa JA. Outcomes following thyroid and parathyroid surgery in pregnant women. Arch Surg 2009;144(5):399–406.
18. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs. N Engl J Med 2005;352(9):905–917.
19. Cooper DS. Propylthiouracil levels in hyperthyroid patients unresponsive to large doses. Evidence of poor patient compliance. Ann Intern Med 1985;102(3):328–331.
20. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs in the management of patients with Graves' disease: an evidence-based approach to therapeutic controversies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88(8):3474–3481.
21. Abraham P, Avenell A, Park CM, Watson WA, Bevan JS. A systematic review of drug therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;153(4):489–498.
22. Andersohn F, Konzen C, Garbe E. Systematic review: agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapy drugs. Ann Intern Med 2007;146(9):657–665.
23. Meyer-Gessner M, Benker G, Lederbogen S, Olbricht T, Reinwein D. Antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis: clinical experience with ten patients treated at one institution and review of the literature. J Endocrinol Invest 1994;17(1):29–36.
24. Ruiz JK, Rossi GV, Vallejos HA, Brenet RW, Lopez IB, Escribano AA. Fulminant hepatic failure associated with propylthiouracil. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(2):224–228.
25. Bahn RS, Burch HS, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee CM, Klein IL, et al. The Role of Propylthiouracil in the Management of Graves' Disease in Adults: report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration. Thyroid 2009;19(7):673–674.
26. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration information for healthcare professionals-propylthiouracil-induced liver failure. 2009
27. Vilchez FJ, Torres I, Garcia-Valero A, Lopez-Tinoco C, de Los Santos A, Aguilar-Diosdado M. Concomitant agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity after treatment with carbimazole. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(11):2059–2063.
28. Woeber KA. Methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity. Endocr Pract 2002;8(3):222–224.
29. Park G, Kim HJ, Jang HC, Chung H. A case of aplasia cutis congenita after methimazole exposure during pregnancy. Korean J Dermatol 2006;44(5):642–644.
30. Kim MJ, Kim MJ, Cho GR, Chueh HW, Jung JA, Lee YS, et al. Aplasia cutis congenita in a baby born to hyperthyroid mother treated with methimazole during pregnancy: a case report. J Korean Soc Pediatr Endocrinol 2008;13(1):100–103.
31. Wolf D, Foulds N, Daya H. Antenatal carbimazole and choanal atresia: a new embryopathy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;132(9):1009–1011.
32. Clark SM, Saade GR, Snodgrass WR, Hankins GD. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacotherapy of thionamides in pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit 2006;28(4):477–483.
33. Mazza E, Carlini M, Flecchia D, Blatto A, Zuccarini O, Gamba S, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease treated with methimazole. Comparison of usual treatment schedule with drug discontinuation vs continuous treatment with low methimazole doses: a retrospective study. J Endocrinol Invest 2008;31(10):866–872.
34. The Japan Thyroid Association. Guideline for the treatment of Graves' disease with antithyroid drug in Japan. Tokyo: Nankodo Co., Ltd; 2006.
35. Kimball LE, Kulinskaya E, Brown B, Johnston C, Farid NR. Does smoking increase relapse rates in Graves' disease? J Endocrinol Invest 2002;25(2):152–157.
36. Allahabadia A, Daykin J, Holder RL, Sheppard MC, Gough SC, Franklyn JA. Age and gender predict the outcome of treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(3):1038–1042.
37. Nedrebo BG, Holm PI, Uhlving S, Sorheim JI, Skeie S, Eide GE, et al. Predictors of outcome and comparison of different drug regimens for the prevention of relapse in patients with Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol 2002;147(5):583–589.
38. Bolanos F, Gonzalez-Ortiz M, Duron H, Sanchez C. Remission of Graves' hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole. Rev Invest Clin 2002;54(4):307–310.
39. Orgiazzi J, Madec AM. Reduction of the risk of relapse after withdrawal of medical therapy for Graves' disease. Thyroid 2002;12(10):849–853.
40. Glinoer D, de Nayer P, Bex M. Effects of l-thyroxine administration, TSH-receptor antibodies and smoking on the risk of recurrence in Graves' hyperthyroidism treated with antithyroid drugs: a double-blind prospective randomized study. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;144(5):475–483.
41. Takasu N, Yamashiro K, Komiya I, Ochi Y, Sato Y, Nagata A. Remission of Graves' hyperthyroidism predicted by smooth decreases of thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyrotropin-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin during antithyroid drug treatment. Thyroid 2000;10(10):891–896.
42. McDermott MT, Kidd GS, Dodson LE Jr, Hofeldt FD. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review. Am J Med 1983;75(2):353–359.
43. Walter MA, Briel M, Christ-Crain M, Bonnema SJ, Connell J, Cooper DS, et al. Effects of antithyroid drugs on radioiodine treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2007;334(7592):514.
44. Delit C, Silver S, Yohalem SB, Segal RL. Thyrocardiac disease and its management with radioactive iodine I-131. JAMA 1961;176:262–267.
45. Burch HB, Solomon BL, Cooper DS, Ferguson P, Walpert N, Howard R. The effect of antithyroid drug pretreatment on acute changes in thyroid hormone levels after (131)I ablation for Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86(7):3016–3021.
46. Andrade VA, Gross JL, Maia AL. Effect of methimazole pretreatment on serum thyroid hormone levels after radioactive treatment in Graves' hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84(11):4012–4016.
47. Klein I. Endocrine disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Libby P, editor. Braunwald's heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. pp. 2033-2047.
48. Santos RB, Romaldini JH, Ward LS. Propylthiouracil reduces the effectiveness of radioiodine treatment in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Thyroid 2004;14(7):525–530.
49. Peters H, Fischer C, Bogner U, Reiners C, Schleusener H. Radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism: standard vs. calculated 131iodine activity. Results from a prospective, randomized, multicentre study. Eur J Clin Invest 1995;25(3):186–193.
50. Fisher WD, Voorhess ML, Gardner LI. Congenital hypothyroidism in infant following maternal I-131 therapy with a review of hazards of environmental radioisotope contamination. J Pediatr 1963;62:132–146.
51. Berg GE, Nystrom EH, Jacobsson L, Lindberg S, Lindstedt RG, Mattsson S, et al. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in a pregnant women. J Nucl Med 1998;39(2):357–361.
52. Uy HL, Reasner CA, Samuels MH. Pattern of recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis following radioactive iodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease. Am J Med 1995;99(2):173–179.
53. Alexander EK, Larsen PR. High dose of (131)I therapy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(3):1073–1077.
54. Erbil Y, Ozluk Y, Giris M, Salmaslioglu A, Issever H, Barbaros U, et al. Effect of lugol solution on thyroid gland blood flow and microvessel density in the patients with Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92(6):2182–2189.
55. Ansaldo GL, Pretolesi F, Varaldo E, Meola C, Minuto M, Borgonovo G, et al. Doppler evaluation of intrathyroid arterial resistances during preoperative treatment with Lugol's iodide solution in patients with diffuse toxic goiter. J Am Coll Surg 2000;191(6):607–612.
56. Baeza A, Aguayo J, Barria M, Pineda G. Rapid preoperative preparation in hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1991;35(5):439–442.
57. Palit TK, Miller CC 3rd, Miltenburg DM. The efficacy of thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: A meta-analysis. J Surg Res 2000;90(2):161–165.
58. Sosa JA, Bowman HM, Tielsch JM, Powe NR, Gordon TA, Udelsman R. The importance of surgeon experience for clinical and economic outcomes from thyroidectomy. Ann Surg 1998;228(3):320–330.
59. Sosa JA, Mehta PJ, Wang TS, Boudourakis L, Roman SA. A population-based study of outcomes from thyroidectomy in aging Americans: at what cost? J Am Coll Surg 2008;206(3):1097–1105.
60. Jumaily JS, Noordzij JP, Dukas AG, Lee SL, Bernet VJ, Payne RJ, et al. Prediction of hypocalcemia after using 1- to 6-hour postoperative parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: an analysis of pooled individual patient data from 3 observational studies. Head Neck 2010;32(4):427–434.
61. McLeod IK, Arciero C, Noordzij JP, Stojadinovic A, Peoples G, Melder PC, et al. The use of rapid parathyroid hormone assay in predicting postoperative hypocalcemia after total or completion thyroidectomy. Thyroid 2006;16(3):259–265.
62. Kaplan EL, Angelos P. Thyroid disease manager, Chapter 21, Surgery of the thyroid gland. 2010 May 18;
63. Noordzij JP, Lee SL, Bernet VJ, Payne RJ, Cohen SM, McLeod IK, et al. Early prediction of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy using parathyroid hormone: an analysis of pooled individual patient data from nine observational studies. J Am Coll Surg 2007;205(6):748–754.
64. Cote V, Sands N, Hier MP, Black MJ, Tamilia M, MacNamara E, et al. Cost savings associated with post-thyroidectomy parathyroid hormone levels. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;138(2):204–208.
65. Bellantone R, Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Boscherini M, Alesina PF, De Crea C, et al. Is routine supplementation therapy (calcium and vitamin D) useful after total thyroidectomy? Surgery 2002;132(6):1109–1112.
discussion 12-3.
66. Wilson RB, Erskine C, Crowe PJ. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy: prospective study. World J Surg 2000;24(6):722–726.
67. Roh JL, Park CI. Routine oral calcium and vitamin D supplements for prevention of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy. Am J Surg 2006;192(5):675–678.