Journal List > Korean J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr > v.14(2) > 1043503

Korean J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Jun;14(2):161-170. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2011.
Copyright © 2011 The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Nutritional Status of Korean Toddlers: From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2009
Young Ho Kim, M.D., Sun Gun Lee, M.D., Shin Hye Kim, M.D., Yoon Ju Song, Ph.D.,* Ju Young Chung, M.D., Ph.D. and Mi Jung Park, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Pediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
*Department of Food & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Corresponding author (Email: )
Received May 06, 2011; Revised June 21, 2011; Accepted June 23, 2011.



The aim of this study was to investigate the feeding patterns, use of dietary supplements, and nutrient intake of Korean toddlers.


We used data for 930 toddlers who participated in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2009. Feeding patterns and use of dietary supplements were assessed using standardized questionnaires, and nutrition intake was assessed using the 24 hr recall method.


In 2007~2009, 48.7% of toddlers used dietary supplements. Most parents (95.4%) initiated a regime of dietary supplements for their children following the advice of friends or relatives. Only 0.4% of parents followed the advice given by their doctors for dietary supplements use. In the survey of nutrient intake for toddlers, the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake was 53.9% for subjects aged 1 year, 55.2% for 2 years and 65.6% for subjects aged 3 years. The prevalence of inadequate iron intake was 52.0% for subjects aged 1 year, 48.7% for 2 years and 48.4% for subjects aged 3 years. In the survey performed on feeding patterns of toddlers during the infant period, mixed feeding accounted for 57.4%, breast feeding for 32.2%,and formula feeding for 10.4%. Sixty-five percent of toddlers began weaning between 4 and 6 months.


This study indicated that a number of toddlers were at risk of inadequate calcium and iron intake. The role of professionals in counseling for qualified dietary intake and dietary supplement use is therefore necessary for Korean toddlers.

Keywords: Breast feeding; Dietary supplements; Nutrient intake


Table 1
General Characteristics of Participants (n=930)
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Table 2
Feeding Patterns during Infant Period
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Table 3
Use of Dietary Supplements among Korean Toddlers (N=930)
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Table 4
Daily Nutrient Intakes of Korean Toddlers according to Age Groups
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Table 5
Proportions of Toddlers Whose Macronutrient Distributions are Inadequate, Adequate, or Excessive
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Table 6
Prevalence of Toddlers Whose Nutrient Intakes Were less than Estimated Average Requirement by Age Group
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