Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.16(1) > 1037259

Kim and Choi: Effects of Head and Neck Massage on Anxiety, Pain, and Discomfort in Hysterectomy Patients



This study determined the effect of head and neck massage on anxiety, pain, and discomfort for hysterectomy patients.


Subjects consisted of 48 hysterectomy patients at K hospital. Experimental group (n=23) received head and neck massage at 8 minutes per massage for five times: (at admission, before sleeping on preoperative day, at 4 hours after operation, before sleeping on operation day, before sleeping on the first postoperative day). Control group (n=25) received conventional treatment. As an effectiveness of this intervention, state of anxiety and BP was measured before sleeping on preoperative day. Pain and discomfort were measured before sleeping on the day of surgery and then on the first postoperative day. Data was analyzed descriptive statistics using χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, paired t-test, unpaired t-test, repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison.


1. State of anxiety score and BP at post-treatment decreased significantly in the experimental group. 2. Pain score in experimental group was lower than that in control group, with no significant difference; whereas, 3. Discomfort level decreased significantly in the experimental group.


Results indicate that head and neck massage could be an effective intervention for reducing preoperative anxiety and postoperative discomfort in hysterectomy patients.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Research design.
Table 1
Homogeneity Test for General Characteristics between the Experimental and Control Groups (N=48)

Fisher's exact test.

Table 2
Homogeneity Test for Anxiety, Pain and Discomfort at Baseline (N=48)

Bp=blood pressure; op=operation.

Table 3
State Anxiety Score, Blood Pressure, and Pulse Rate between the Experimental and Control Groups (N=48)

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group; tw=Paired t-test; tb=Unpaired t-test; SBp=systolic blood pressure; DBp=diastolic blood pressure; PR=pulse rate.

Table 4
Pain Score and Discomfort Score between the Experimental and Control Groups (N=48)

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group; hs=hora sommi (before sleeping); Op=operation; a, b=p<.05 by Bonferroni comparison, same letters are significantly different.


1. Baik S.W., Kim H.S., Shin S.W., Kim H.K., Kim I.S., Chung K.S. Postoperative pain control in low abdominal surgery; Comparison of subarachnoid block with morphine or morphine and clonidine and continuous epidural block with morphine and bupivacaine. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 1998. 35(3):523–530.
2. Bentley E. A Gaia busy person's guide to Indian head massage: Simple routines for home, work, & travel (Busy person's guide). 2007. London: Gaia.
3. Chang H.K. Effect of foot reflexology on patient's pain and mood following a mastectomy. 2001. Seoul: Yonsei University;Unpublished master's thesis.
4. Cho H.M. Effect of foot-reflexo-massage on stress and immune function in patients with gastric cancer. 2001. Daegu: Keimyung University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
5. Huh S.M. The effect of back massage on anxiety and discomfort of the patients with percutaneous transulminal coronary angioplasty. 2000. Seoul: Catholic University of Korea;Unpublished master's thesis.
6. Jang M.Y. The effect of foot massage on pain, anxiety and sleep on patients following post abdominal surgery. 2002. Seoul: Ewha Womans University;Unpublished master's thesis.
7. Kim G.R. The effect of foot massage on preoperative anxiety and sleep satisfaction of abdominal surgical patients. 2003. Gwangju: Chonnam National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
8. Kim H.R. A Study on effects of scalp massage on stress responses In middle aged women. Journal of Korean Society of Trichology. 2005. 1(1):149–160.
9. Kim H.S., Chang C.J. The effect of foot massage on anxiety response in preoperative patients undergoing total hysterectomy. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing. 2000. 6(4):579–593.
10. Kim J.H. The effect of foot massage on postoperative pain in patients following abdominal surgery. 2001. Seoul: Chung-Ang University;Unpublished master's thesis.
11. Kim J.H. The effect of meridian massage on head and neck on the relief of housewives' stress. 2006. Seoul: Konkuk University;Unpublished master's degree.
12. Kim J.M. The Effect of Hand Massage on the Anxiety of the Hysterectomy Patients in Immediately prior to Surgery. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2000. 30(2):476–487.
13. Kim J.T., Shin D.K. A study based on the standardization of the STAI for Korea. New Medical Journal. 1978. 21(11):69–75.
14. Kim M.Y., Jeon S.Y., Song Y.H., Choi E.J., Kim J.H., Kim M.S., Joo M.S., Kim N.S. The effects of head and neck massage on the sleep and anxiety of ICU patients. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research. 2006. 11(2):49–61.
15. Kim S.H. The effects of hand massage on the anxiety, sleeping satisfaction and pain of hysterectomy patients. 2004. Seoul: Ewha Womans University;Unpublished master's thesis.
16. Lee H.S. The effect of emotional state and social support of preoperative patients on postoperative pain. 2001. Seoul: Chung-Ang University;Unpublished master's thesis.
17. Longworth J.C. Psychophysiological effects of slow stroke back massage in normotensive females. Advances in Nursing Science. 1982. 4(4):44–61.
18. Mayes L.C., Pincus S., Alexander G.M., Sevarino F., Kain Z.N. Preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain in women undergoing hysterectomy. A repeated-measures design. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2000. 49(6):417–422.
19. McGuinness H. Indian head massage. 2007. 3rd ed.Abingdon: Oxford University Press.
20. Oh J.J. The effect of hand-massage on the relaxation of dementia patients. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2000. 30(4):825–835.
21. Oh Y.H. The effects of inhalation method using essential oils on the preoperative anxiety of hysterectomy patients. 2002. Busan: Dong-eui University;Unpublished master's thesis.
22. Park M.S., Suh M.J. The effect of the hand massage on anxiety of the cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 1995. 25(2):316–329.
23. Park S.H. The effects of massage on central pain and skin temperature in patients with stroke. 2002. Seoul: Yonsei University;Unpublished master's thesis.
24. Shin C.H. The effect of PCA education and P6 acupressure on postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting of hysterectomy patient. 2004. Jinju: Gyeongsang National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
25. Song K.N. Discomfort of women undergoing cesarean delivery in operating room and recovery at obstetric ward. 1994. Daegu: Kyungpook National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
26. Spielberge C. Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research. 1972. New York: Academic Press.
27. Suh Y.S. Change patterns on subjective distress Level in gynecological postoperative patients with different levels of state anxiety. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing. 2005. 11(4):307–315.
28. Widdowson R. Head massage/Rosalind Widdowson. 2003. London: Hamlyn.
29. Yook C.Y. Sports massage theory. 1996. Seoul: Hongkyung Press.
30. Youn M.K. The effects of quantum scalp massage on the psychological and physiological responses in middle aged women. 2006. Seoul: Kyonggi University;Unpublished master's thesis.
Similar articles