Journal List > J Korean Endocr Soc > v.23(6) > 1003464

Chung: Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules Detected by Ultrasonography in Adults for Health Check-up and Analysis of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology


1. Vander JB, Gaston EA, Dawber TR. The significance of nontoxic thyroid nodules: Final report of a 15-year study of the incidence of thyroid malignancy. Ann Intern Med. 1968. 69:537–540.
2. Rojeski MT, Gharib H. Nodular thyroid disease: Evaluation and management. N Engl J Med. 1985. 313:428–436.
3. Brander A, Viikinkoski P, Nickels J, Kivisaari L. Thyroid gland: US screening in a random adult population. Radiology. 1991. 181:683–687.
4. Brander A, Viikinkoski P, Tuuhhea J, Voutilainen L, Kivisaari L. Clinical versus ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland in common clinical practice. J Clin Ultrasound. 1992. 20:37–42.
5. Ezzat S, Sarti DA, Cain DR, Braunstein GD. Thyroid incidentalomas. Prevalence by palpation and ultrasonography. Arch Intern Med. 1994. 154:1838–1840.
6. Tan GH, Gharib H. Thyroid incidentalomas: Management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging. Ann Intern Med. 1997. 126:226–231.
7. Knudsen N, Bols B, Bulow I, Jorgensen T, Peerild H, Ovesen L, Laurberq P. Validation of ultrasonography of the thyroid gland for epidemiological purposes. Thyroid. 1999. 9:1069–1074.
8. Rice CO. Incidence of nodules in thyroid: Comparative study of symptomless thyroid gland removed at autopsy and hyperfunctioning goiters operatively removed. Arch Surg. 1932. 24:505–508.
9. Hellwig CA. Thyroid gland in Kansas. Am J Clin Pathol. 1935. 5:103–106.
10. Mortensen JD, Woolner LB, Bennett WA. Gross and microscopic findings in clinically normal thyroid glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1955. 15:1270–1280.
11. Carroll BA. Asymptomatic thyroid nodules: incidental sonographic detection. Am J Roentgenol. 1982. 138:499–501.
12. Woestyn J, Afschrift M, Schelstraete K, Vermeulen A. Demonstration of nodules in the normal thyroid by echography. Br J Radiol. 1985. 58:1179–1182.
13. Mazzaferri EL. Management of a solitary thyroid nodule. N Eng J Med. 1993. 328:553–559.
14. Tomimori E, Pedrinola F, Cavaliere H, Knovel M, Medeiros-Neto G. Prevalence of incidental thyroid disease in a relatively low iodine intake area. Thyroid. 1995. 5:273–276.
15. Wang C, Crapo LM. The epidemiology of thyroid disease and implications for screening. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1997. 26:189–218.
16. Kang HW, No JH, Chung JH, Min YK, Lee MS, Lee MK, Yang JH, Kim KW. Prevalence, clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of thyroid incidentalomas. Thyroid. 2004. 14:29–33.
17. Yim CH, Oh HJ, Chung HY, Han KO, Jang HC, Yoon HK, Han IK, Han BH, Lee KS, Cho BJ. Prevalence of thyroid nodules detected by ultrasonography in womens attending health check-ups. J Korean Soc Endocrinol. 2002. 17:183–188.
18. Suk JH, Kim TY, Kim MK, Kim WB, Kim HK, Jeon SH, Shong YK. Prevalence of ultrasonographically-detected thyroid nodules in adults without previous history of thyroid disease. J Korean Endocrinol Soc. 2006. 21:389–393.
19. Kim JH, Park SJ, Kim SE, Lee KH, Cho IK, Jang SI, Lee JK, Seo KS, Kwon HP, Chung SC. Prevalence of thyroid nodules detected by ultrasonography in adult men attending health check-ups. J Korean Endocr Soc. 2007. 22:112–117.
20. Kim WJ, Kim JH, Park DW, Lee CB, Park YS, Kim DS, Choi WH, Kim TW, Ahn YH. Prevalence of thyroid nodules detected by ultrasonography in adults for health check-ups and analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology. J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008. 23.
21. Chung WY, Chang HS, Kim EK, Park CS. Ultrasonographic mass screening for thyroid carcinoma: a study in women scheduled to undergo a breast examination. Surg Today. 2001. 31:763–767.
22. Mazzaferri EL. Thyroid cancer in thyroid nodules: Finding a needle in the haystack. Am J Med. 1992. 93:359–362.
23. Lin JD, Huang BY, Chao TC, Hsueh C. Diagnosis of occult thyroid carcinoma by thyroid ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol. 1997. 41:1751–1756.
24. Hagag P, Strauss S, Weiss M. Role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 1998. 8:989–995.
25. Khurana KK, Richards VI, Chopra PS, Izquierdo R, Rubens D, Mesonero C. The role of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in the management of nonpalpable and palpable thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 1998. 8:511–515.
26. Silverberg SG, Vidone RA. Carcinoma of the thyroid in surgical and postmortem material: Analysis of 300 cases at autopsy and literature review. Ann Surg. 1966. 164:291–299.
27. Fukunaga FH, Lockett LJ. Thyroid carcinoma in the Japanese in Hawaii. Arch Pathol. 1971. 92:6–13.
28. Sampson RJ, Woolner LB, Bahn RC, Kurland LT. Occult thyroid carcinoma in Olmsted Country, Minnesota: prevalence at autopsy compared with that in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Cancer. 1974. 34:2072–2076.
29. Fukunaga FH, Yatani R. Geographic pathology of occult thyroid cacinomas. Cancer. 1975. 36:1095–1099.
30. Sobrinho-Simoes MA, Sambade MC, Goncalves V. Latent thyroid carcinoma at autopsy: a study from Oporto, Protugal. Cancer. 1979. 43:1702–1706.
31. Bondeson L, Ljungberg O. Occult thyroid carcinoma at autopsy in Malmo, Sweden. Cancer. 1981. 47:319–323.
32. Harach HR, Franssila KO, Wasenius VM. Occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A "normal" finding in Finland. A systematic autopsy study. Cancer. 1985. 56:531–538.
33. Belfiore A, La Rosa GL, La Porta GA, Giuffrida D, Milazzo G, Lupo L, Regalbuto C, Vigneri R. Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity. Am J Med. 1992. 93:363–369.
34. Yim CH, Chung HK, Kim WB, Park DJ, Kim SY, Cho BY, Lee HK. Prevalence of thyroid cancer in patients with cold thyroid nodules in relation to sex, age, and multinodularity. J Korean Soc Endocrinol. 1998. 13:366–372.
35. Iribarren C, Haselkorn T, Tekawa IS, Friedman GD. Cohort study of thyroid cancer in a San Francisco bay area population. Int J Cancer. 2001. 93:745–750.
36. Papini E, Guglielmi R, Bianchini A, Crescenzi A, Taccogna S, Nardi F, Panunzi C, Rinaldi R, Toscano V, Pacella CM. Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002. 87:1941–1946.
37. Delides GS, Elemenoglou J, Lekkas J. Occult thyroid carcinoma in a Greek population. Neoplasma. 1987. 34:119–125.
38. Pelizzo MR, Piotto A, Rubello D, Casara D, Fassina A, Busnardo B. High prevalence of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in a surgical series for benign thyroid disease. Tumori. 1990. 76:255–257.
39. Reading CC. What are some appropriate guidelines for dealing with impalpable thyroid masses detected by chest or neck CT or sonography? Am J Roentgenol. 1997. 169:1747.
40. Ashcraft MW, van Herle A. Management of thyroid nodules. II: Scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration. Head Neck Surg. 1981. 3:297–322.
41. Caruso D, Mazzaferri EL. Fine-needle aspiration in the management of nodules. Endocrinologist. 1991. 1:194–202.
42. Gharib H, Goellner JR. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid: an appraisal. Ann Intern Med. 1993. 118:282–289.
43. Brooks AD, Shaha AR, DuMornay W, Huvos AG, Zakowski M, Brennan MF, Shah J. Role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and frozen section analysis in the surgical management of thyroid tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2001. 8:92–100.
44. Hooft L, Hoekstra OS, Boers M, Van Tulder MW, Van Diest P, Lips P. Practice, efficacy and costs of thyroid nodule evaluation: a retrospective study in a Dutch university hospital. Thyroid. 2004. 14:287–293.
45. Kim WB, Kim TY, Kwon HS, Moon WJ, Lee JB, Choi YS, Kim SK, Kim SW, Chung KW, Baek JH, Kim BI, Park DJ, Na DG, Choe JH, Chung JH, Jung HS, Kim JH, Nam KH, Chang HS, Chung WY, Hong SW, Hong SJ, Lee JH, Yi KH, Jo YS, Kang HC, Shong MH, Park JW, Yoon JH, Kang SJ, Lee KW. Management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. J Korean Endocr Soc. 2007. 22:157–187.
46. Gharib H, Goellner JR, Johnson DA. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: A 12-year experience with 11,000 biopsies. Clin Lab Med. 1993. 13:699–709.
47. Lee HJ, Rha SY, Kwon KH, Lee JC, Kim KS, Jo YS, Ku BJ, Shong MH, Kim YK, Ro HK. The adequacy of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in thyroid nodules. J Korean Soc Endocrinol. 2005. 20:154–159.
Similar articles