Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.42(6) > 1002866

Choi and Lee: Effects of a Recreational Combination Gymnastics Program for Old-old Women



In this study a recreational combination gymnastics program was provided for women 75 years of age or older and the effects on physical fitness (grip strength, static balance, ability to do complex movement), depression, cognitive function and quality of life were examined.


A quasi-experimental study employing a nonequivalent control group, pre-post design was conducted. Participants included 53 women elders whose cognitive function was within the normal range. The women were assigned to an experimental group (27) or a control group (26). The intervention was conducted twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Chi-square test, t-test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for data analysis.


Following completion of the program, left grip strength (t=2.17, p=.035), right grip strength (t=2.04, p=.046), static balance (t=-2.18, p=.030), depression (z=-2.88, p=.004), cognitive function (t=3.96, p<.001), and quality of life (t=-3.19, p=.002) were significantly better in the experimental group.


Findings from this study indicate that recreational combination gymnastics programs are effective in enhancing physical fitness, cognitive function, and quality of life and in decreasing depression for female elders and could therefore be regarded as positive programs for promotion of physical and mental health for older women.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Recreational Combination Gymnastics Program
Table 2
Homogeneity of General Characteristics of the Groups (N=53)

Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group.

*Fisher's exact test.

Table 3
Homogeneity Test for Dependent Variables (N=53)

Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group.

*Mann-Whitney test.

Table 4
Difference between Groups in Physical Fitness (N=53)

Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group; ta=Paired test; tb=Independent test.

*Wilcoxon signed rank test; Mann-Whitney test.

Table 5
Difference between Groups in Depression, Cognition and Quality of Life (N=53)

Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group; ta=Paired test; tb=Independent test.

*Wilcoxon signed rank test; Mann-Whitney test.


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